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Full text of "Canadian affairs : reconstruction supplement"

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FOREWORD 



From time to time, issues of CANADIAN AF- 
FAIRS have been devoted to broad questions touching 
the future of every Canadian* 

But the time has come to get down to cases. So alter- 
nating with the regular issues we shall publish a series 
of Reconstruction Supplements, each dealing more 
thoroughly with a narrower field of activity. If we 
began alphabetically with Accountants, it might be 
years before we reached the potential Toolmakers in 
your group. (By the way, the Canadian Legion has pre- 
pared excellent pamphlets for the Services* under the 
general title "Let's Consider Jobs", outlining what is to 
be expected of both these occupations, among many 
others.) 

After all, when we are qualified as accountants or 
what not, we have still to choose among the very wide 
variety of firms that may employ us. And we shall con- 
tinue for the rest of our days to be affected by the 
products and policies of each of Canada's major in- 
dustries, no matter where we happen to work. 

What service does the industry perform for Cana- 
dians? What will be its role in a fully employed 
Canada? What does it offer in pay and opportunities 
to those looking for jobs? Is its trading position likely 
to change? Is the Canadian public giving the industry 
a boost? Is the industry returning the compliment? 

This looks like a tall order. Let's have a look at 

the Textile Industry, and see how many in your group 

will bet their shirts on entering it, and how they may 

August 4, fare as compared with the rest of the group, who'll be 

1945 buying shirts — from them. 



JOBS IN 
TEXTILES 



1 



The streets of Halifax, Montreal, Toronto, Winni- 
peg, Vancouver and points in between are displaying a 
higher proportion of civilian clothes these days. They CONVERTING 
aren't yet "civvy" streets, and won't be while the war ^0 CIVVIES 
with Japan continues; but a lot of repats are out of 
uniform already. Everywhere, there's a strange mixture 
of 1939 and 1945 styles. 

Getting clothes these days isn't too easy. Changing 
back to civilian clothing production won't be complete, 
of course, until after Japan is defeated. However some SHOPPING FOR 
goods are beginning to appear in larger quantities. As 
it stands now, the possession of a uniform helps a lot 
in getting a suit. Service people have a priority for what 
material there is. 

Let's take a look at this clothing, or rather, textile 
manufacturing business. What's involved in making THAT'S IT 
"civvies"? Who does the work? Where do they do it? ALL ABOUT? 
Where did our textile industry come from? Where is 
it going? What's it like working at making cloth? What 
are the possibilities for jobs? 

The Place of Textiles in 

Canadian Manufacturing 

We can start with a few general indications of the 
place textiles occupy in the Canadian economy. Textile 
manufacturing in 1939 employed about 18 out of every 
100 Canadian workers in all manufacturing industries. 
It turned out about #10 in each #100 worth of indus- WHFp - nn 
trial products. The industry occupied 8 out of every TEXTILES STAND? 
100 factories in the country. It paid #14 out of every 
#100 paid in wages and salaries for all Canadian manu- 
facturing. Of all the capital invested in Canadian 
manufacturing, nearly 10% was invested in textile 
plants. The cost-of-living experts believe that nearly 



WORKERS, WAGES AND PRODUCTS 


1943 


EMPLOYEES 


$ WAGES AND SALARIES 


$ NET VALUE OF 
PRODUCTION 


TEXTILE! 




158,000 


$191,000,000 


$334,000,000 


ALL MANUFACTURING 


1,241,000 


$1,987,000,000 


$3,806,000,000 



A CENTURY 
AND A HALF 



SEEKING 
INDEPENDENCE 



$12 out of every $100 is spent by the average family 
on clothing. That puts textiles into the top brackets of 
Canadian industry. By any standard you choose textiles 
are in the first half-dozen industries. 

Textiles Have a Long Past 

Canada's clothing industry has a long history. We 
used to recall it to tourists (in the days when there 
wene tourists) by showing them highly-prized spinning 
wheels and weaving looms carefully kept in the older 
districts of the country. Some of these instruments 
date back more than a century and a half. They used 
to be standard home equipment like smoke-houses and 
churns and other essentials of a self-sufficient com- 
munity. But the home manufacturing plant is out now, 
except in a few districts. Over a hundred years ago it 
was replaced by the factory with automatic machines 
to spin fibres into yarn, and power looms to weave yarn 
into cloth. What had been a handicraft became an 
industry. 

The industry grew and played an increasingly im- 
portant part in the business life of the country. As 
Canada approached maturity, our grandfathers became 
unwilling to see the country remain merely a source of 
raw materials. The encouragement of the textile in- 
dustry was one of the measures taken to develop a more 
varied pattern of production. This meant that we could 
manufacture finished goods as well as produce raw 
materials. 



Materials 

Cotton fibres have long been available from the 
United States and we have developed sources of power, 
labour, and capital as we have needed them. It was the 
Civil War in the United States which aided the de- 
velopment of the cotton industry in Canada because of 
its interference with the flow of cotton goods. We were COTTON 
able to get the raw material, but we had to process it 
ourselves. In the years that followed we developed an 
important industry. By 1943 we had a cotton manu- 
facturing industry in which the gross 4 value of produc- 
tion was about #15,000,000. 

The United States influenced the development of 
Canada's woollen industry in another way. In this case 
we had plenty of the raw material we needed but we 
had exported much of it to the States for manufac- 
turing into cloth. However, in 1866 the United States 
imposed duties on Canadian wool that made it neces- WOOL 
sary, as well as desirable, that we develop our own in- 
dustry to use the wool and supply our own market. A 
great deal of history is summed up in the fact that by 





THE INDUSTRY SHRINKS & STRETCHES l 






ESTABLISH- WAGES GROSS 
MENTS & SALARIES PRODUCTION 


YEAR 
1929 


EACH PLANT jjgj 300 


EACH [I) $25,000,000 


EACH UNIT Q 100,000,000 


lu iw Li ]u L» 

Q ffi Si ffij fiu 


aaas 


QQQQ 


1933 


DDBDlBEi 


aaa 


JJl 


19S9 


L L L L L L lc 

■i nranns 


saaat 


QQQQ 


1943 


S C C Q y m S; E 


aaaaaaai 


QQQQQQQC 

FROM 0.1.5. DATA 



1942 the gross value of products of the woollen in- 
dustry totalled #101,620,000. 

The silk industry has developed largely since con- 
federation and its importance has increased with the 
SILK discovery of methods for producing artificial silk 

(rayon). These fibres are referred to as synthetic 
fibres. Between 1924 when the first artificial silk plant 
was built in Cornwall, Ontario, and 1936, Canadian 
artificial silk yarn production increased from just over 
500,000 yards to nearly 14,000,000 yards annually. In 
1935 the natural silk industry production had a gross 
value of #446,000 against an artificial silk gross value 
of #6,798,000. The formqr employed 186 workers and 
the latter 2,169. By 1943 they had a gross value taken 
together of #50,440,000. 

These three materials are the sources of most of the 
textiles we make in Canada. There are a great many 
processes and people involved in changing them from 
raw fibres into goods ready to take home,, It takes about 
2,000 factories to accommodate the industry. 

The factories aren't so romantic as the early devices 
appear to us now, but they are more effective. They 
can do more in a day than our ancestors could do in a 
month. One operator can handle more than a hundred 
automatic spindles — the machines that twist and wind 
the thread. Corresponding efficiency with the looms 
provides us with most of our cloth in much less time. 



MEN AND 
MACHINES 



Published for use as discussion material in the Canadian Armed 

Forces. Distributed to civilian groups through the Canadian 

Council of Education for Citizenship. May be reprinted for 

similar purposes, with or without acknowledgment. 



THE FABRIC 
INDUSTRIES 



2 



Textile manufacturing is really a series of industries 
— from those that secure the raw materials to those that 
sew on buttons. The industries begin with three main 
materials: cotton fibres, woollen fibres and synthetic 
fibres. With each material the whole process is divided 
into two parts known as primary and secondary. 

Primary Stage 

The primary stage covers the processes required to 
transform the animal, vegetable and synthetic fibres 
(cotton and wool and silk) into threads and from 
threads into cloth. Towels, blankets, underwear, ho- 
siery, velvets, draperies, upholstery, tire fabrics, canvas 
and carpets are all regarded as primary textile prod- 
ucts, because they leave the loom almost ready to be 
sold to the user. 

In 1941, more than 85,000 Canadians were em- 
ployed in primary textile processing. They were doing 
the spinning, weaving, pattern designing, dyeing and TEXTILE JOBS 
knitting required to transform raw materials into 
various kinds of cloth. 

Secondary Stage 

The secondary textile industry uses this cloth for 
the manufacture of innumerable articles ranging from 
the cap on your head to the linoleum under your feet. 
Among other things the industry produces men's suits 
and women's dresses, hats, caps, haberdashery, corsets, 
cotton and jute bags, oiled and waterproof clothing, 
cordage, rope and twine, awnings, tents and sails, oil- 
cloth, curtains, window blinds and backing for linoleum. 

Just about every second person employed in the 
textile business works at secondary textiles. Most of aSy TEXTILE 
their occupations are known as the "needle" trades. A jobs 



SOME PRIMARY 

TEXTILE 

PRODUCTS 



SOME PRIMARY 



SOME SECOND- 
ARY TEXTILE 
PRODUCTS 



FACTORIES 



JOBBERS 



LOCATION 



needle trade shop may employ a designer and a grader, 
a few cutters, finishers, pressers, shippers and many 
machine operators. The business details, as distinct 
from the manufacturing processes, may provide em- 
ployment for several salesmen, a small office staff and 
a manager. These are some of the secondary textile 
jobs. They are carried on in much smaller shops than 
primary processes. Seventy-two thousand garment 
workers and related trades-people do their work in 
more than 1,400 factories — about 50 employees per 
factory; while the eighty-five thousand primary work- 
ers occupy fewer than 500 mills — 170 in each mill. 

This multiplication of factories in the secondary 
textile industry has resulted in a large group of middle- 
men, known as jobbers, entering the textile business. 
These jobbers buy cloth from the relatively few pri- 
mary producers and sell it to the many garment shops. 

There's a kaleidoscopic view of the industry. That's 
what is meant by textiles and, in brief, that's how raw 
materials get to be useful articles — from cotton plants 
and sheeps' bodies and silk worms to furnishings for 
homes and clothes for humans. 

Where do they do it? 

The great part of the textile business is located in 
Quebec and Ontario, with some factories in the Mari- 
times and Manitoba and a few in the other provinces. 
Much of the primary industry is centered in smaller 
cities where available power, plentiful labour and lower 
taxes are attractions. Many of these communities are 
almost 'company towns' built around the industry and 
dependent on it. The butchers and barbers and mer- 
chants earn their living by serving the textile workers. 
Thus in addition to their own employees, the textile 
companies afford a living to a great number of others, 
and in turn, their ups and downs are quickly felt 
through the whole community. 

The primary textile industry is one of the few manu- 
facturing industries which has contributed to the 
growth of many small towns rather than of the large 
metropolitan centres like Toronto and Montreal. 



8 



TEXTILE PROCESSES 



PRIMARY 



-> 



<■ 



SECONDARY 




CLOTH 



GARMENT 



Who does it? 

The ratio of women to men is higher in the textile 
industry than it is in most others. In 1934 female wage- 
earners formed less than 25% of the total number of 
wage-earners in all manufacturing industries in Canada. 
At the same time, in various branches of the textile in- 
dustry, they averaged nearly 45%. Even this high per- 
centage was lower than the average in textile plants 
abroad. 

In 1941 there were 41,000 men and 36,000 women 
in the primary textile wage-earner class. The salaried 
class of primary textile employees (managers, super- 
visors, chemists, engineers, clerical staff and so on) con- 
sisted of 5,000 men and 3,000 women. 

In secondary textiles, there were 19,000 male and 
42,000 female wage-earners, with 7,000 male and 3,000 
female salaried personnel. This distinction between 
wage-earners and salaried groups is accounted for by 
the fact that most textile employees are paid on an 
hourly basis. It will be seen that primary textiles have 
just about 10% in the salaried class, while in secondary 
textiles the percentage is between 15% and 20%. 

The industry employs proportionately more young 
people than others do. 1931 figures show that all manu- 
facturing industries considered together employ just 
over 20% of their male help, and just under 60% of 
the female employees, under 25 years of age. In the 
woollen, cotton and hosiery divisions of textiles, well 
over 40% of male employees and about 70% of female 
employees are under 25. 



WOMEN 
WORKERS 



WAGE AND 

SAURY 

WORKERS 



YOUTHFUL 
WORKERS 



9 



OCCUPATIONAL 
HAZARDS 



WORKING 
HOURS BEFORE 
THE WAR 



HOURS DURING 
THE WAR 



What is it like working 

at Textile Making? 

Nowadays very little muscular effort and only a 
moderate term of training are required for most opera- 
tions in the making of cloth; this accounts partly for 
the number of women and young persons employed. 

While great physical strength is not required, re- 
sistance to mental and physical strain is. The machines 
work at high speed and require constant watching. 
There are no diseases specifically associated with textile 
occupations in the way that silicosis is associated with 
mining. But heat, humidity, lint, dust, dye and noise 
all contribute to nervous strain and physical disorders. 
Mills differ in the quality of their ventilation systems 
and the conveniences and facilities provided for em- 
ployees. In the report of the Royal Commission on the 
Textile Industry (Ottawa 1938) it is pointed out that 
"while improvements are made from time to time the 
conditions in many mills are still below modern factory 
standards". 

When it came to report on working hours, the 
Commission noted that the textile industry in Canada 
had to be placed alongside those in the least advanced 
group of nations. "As the situation now is", the Report 
said in 1938, "Canada is still in the first group with 
China, India and Japan". 

The knitted goods division was the only branch of 
our textile industry in which, before the war, the Com- 
mission found as many as a quarter of the workers en- 
joying a normal work week of 48 hours or less. 

During the war years, however, hours of work in the 
textile industry have not been very different from the 
average for the other leading Canadian manufacturing 
industries. 



UNIONS 



Union Organization 

Management in the primary textile industry has 
with few exceptions been slow to accept the principle 
of collective bargaining, despite the fact that its inter- 
national counterparts in Britain, the United States and 
continental Europe have long accepted the practice or 



10 



QvvifStiifi 





No. 14 



/TV'S' L-r 

EWS 



August 4 f 1945 



HURRY HOME-BUILDING 



THE demand for homes is so 
urgent that one scheme after 
another is being undertaken to get 
the work moving on thousands of 
new dwellings. The Dominion 
Government, through Wartime 
Housing Limited and by agree- 
ment with various municipalities, 
has already built 1,123 houses of 
a permanent or semi-permanent 
type for rent to ex-members of the 
Armed Forces or to dependents of 
those still in the forces, and has 
another 1,414 houses under con- 
struction or under negotiation — be- 
sides some 17,000 wartime houses 
built for workers in war plants. 
Recently, the part that can be 
played by insurance companies in 
helping to finance home-building 
has been under discussion. 

Now the government has put 
forward a plan which would clear 
the way for the building industry 
to start house construction on a 
very large scale. Briefly, the idea 
is that a builder (or group of 
builders) who undertakes to build 
houses for sale to servicemen and 
ex-servicemen, will be able to 
borrow money under the National 



Housing Act (N.H.A.) on the 
same basis as a man who under- 
takes to build for himself. The 
builder, under such an arrange- 
ment, will have to develop a 
substantial area of land in ac- 
cordance with plans approved by 
the N.H.A. ; the houses will be 
of good low-cost types, also ap- 
proved by the N.H.A.; and they 
must be sold only to members or 
ex-members of the Armed Forces 
or their dependents, at least until 
they are finished and ready. Each 
house will be sold at not more 
than $350, $425 or $500 above 
its lending value, depending on 
whether it has two, three or four 
bedrooms. (The lending value* 
will be determined in advance for 
each house in each project by the 
N.H.A., at approximately the 
estimated cost of construction.) 

The government, for its part, 
will undertake to buy, at its 
lending value, any house that may 
remain unsold a year after con- 
struction. Builders will be as- 
sisted to obtain materials, and 
labour for this job will be given 
the highest priority. 




Replying to 
your Inquiry... 



PLAN TO CO-OPERATE WITH NEIGHBOURS 

Before coming into the Army three years ago, I worked with my brother-in-law on his farm. I 
have no investment in the farm myself, but took special interest in everything just as though I 
had. I worked on a percentage basis mostly. 

On my discharge from the Army, could I buy a farm located near him and have it equipped, to as 
great an extent as money permits, under the Veterans' hand Act? My plan would be to farm 
about 160 acres, but I could not do this as I wish without quite a lot of machinery. Is there any 
rule which prevents us from continuing to work together, with the machinery he has and what 
new stock I can get? — Tpr, Barrie, Ont. 

You would seem to be in a good position to start farming under V.L.A. In particular, 
the V.L.A. officials encourage a veteran to co-operate with established farmers in the 
neighbourhood, exchanging where possible the use of machinery in order to economise. 

YOU MIGHT TAKE UP CROWN LAND 

I want to get started again in the mink-raising business, in conjunction with fishing, but I would 
need more capital for land, buildings, breeding stock, cages, boats and gear than I could get 
under the V.L.A. Can you tell me how I might be able to finance the undertaking! 

— Gnr, 2nd, HAA, RCA, CAOS. 

Some of the provincial governments are co-operating with the Dominion Government 
to settle veterans on Crown lands under the V.L.A. You might be able to find a 
suitable location for your mink farm on wild land which you could get on quite 
favourable terms. Under the V.L.A. an outright grant of up to $2,320 may be made 
to a veteran settling on provincial lands, for purchase of commercial fishing equip- 
ment, fur farming equipment (not including breeding stock) building material, farm 
livestock, machinery and household equipment. Get in touch with the Department 
of Lands and Mines of the province where you intend to settle. 

4 'LEARNING-EARNINGS' ' 

In Civvy Street News of February 15th, 1945, it states that "learning-earnings" are fixed 
at about 80 per cent of the rate of pay ordinarily received by a fully trained person in the same 
line of work. 

I have about three years of my apprenticeship to complete in a composing room. The scale of pay 
for a journeyman in my home town is ninety cents per hour. Does this mean that if I go back 
to complete the learning of my trade, the least hourly rate of pay I can expect from the company 
and the Department of Veterans Affairs jointly will run around seventy-two cents per hour? 

— Coder, HMC Ship. 

First we must distinguish between two things: on the one hand, reinstating employees 
in their former jobs, and on the other hand, training on the job for new workers in an 



KNOW YOUR REHAB RIGHTS: 

FREE MEDICAL TREATMENT • CLOTHING ALLOWANCES • REHABILITATION GRANT • REINSTATEMENT IN JOBS 
IE-ESTABLISHMENT CREDIT • A HOME OUTSIDE TOWN • FARMING OPPORTUNITIES • VOCATIONAL TRAINING 

UNIVERSITY TRAINING • MAINTENANCE GRANTS 
How do they work? How do they affect YOUR future? They are all part of Canada's 
Rehabilitation Program, designed to help you on the road ahead. Keep informed. Send 
in your questions to Editor, Civvy Street News, Wartime Information Board, Ottawa. 

Extra copier of Civvy Street News are available on request. 
Contents may be reprinted with or without acknowledgment. 



industry. If any man who is an apprentice enlists in the Armed Forces, his employer 
is obliged by law to re -employ him after discharge. The wage to be paid depends then, 
we believe, on the terms of the apprentice agreement or indenture under which he was 
originally engaged. If the agreement calls for increases in wages based on length of 
service, then your service in the forces would count as service with the employer, for 
this purpose. However, if your agreement calls for wage increases based on increasing 
skill, you would probably be re-engaged at the same wage as when you left the em- 
ployer, unless you have increased your trade skill while in the forces. 
It doesn't seem as if the training-on-the-job plan would exactly apply to your case. 

VETERANS INSURANCE 

Where would I apply for Veterans Insurance! — Ex-Cpl, N.B. 

You can apply through any of the Department of Veterans Affairs Rehabilitation 
Centres in Canada, or write to the Superintendent of Veterans Insurance, Department 
of Veterans Affairs, Daly Building, Ottawa. 

MAKE THE MOST OF V.L.A. TERMS 

/ plan soon after discharge to take up a small holding under the V.L.A. Can I do most of 
the actual work on my house ', and hire contractors to do some of the more difficult jobs, such as 
plumbing and tinsmithing? This would cut down labour costs. Can I use the $6 ; 000 allotted 
for property and buildings alone, or must I use only $4,800 for buildings ard land, and the 
other $1 ,200 for furniture and tools? —LAC, RCAF, B.C. 

We should think you could work on your own house, as you suggest, if your work- 
manship is reasonably sound. 

Under the V.L.A. it is possible to use up to $6,000 for land and buildings; but remember 
that 10% of the value of land and buildings is required as a down payment, and % of 
their value must be repaid. Whereas if part of the available funds, up to $1,200, is 
used for buying stock and equipment instead, it does not have to be repaid, provided 
the veteran sticks to his contract for 10 years. 

STUDY MUST HAVE AN AIM 

/ intend to go on to the University as soon as I am discharged, to take the Arts course which I had 
been planning. Can I choose my subjects quite freely, or do I have to follow a set program! 

—Lieut (S), WRCNS. 

In order to qualify for assistance under the rehabilitation scheme, you will have to 
prove to the satisfaction of your rehabilitation counsellor that the courses and subjects 
you enroll for will actually help you to make a living later on. 



REHAB ROUNDUP 



NOBODY ARRIVING IN CANADA 
will have far to look for a job, at least 
while conditions remain as they are now. 
The Dominion Department of Labour 
reveals that in mid-July there were 128,000 
jobs to be filled throughout Canada, with 
less than 50,000 workers registered as 
seeking employment. Industries that are 
seriously short-handed at present are farm- 
ing, building construction, mining, pulp- 
wood cutting, west coast logging, and 
shipbuilding on both coasts. Women 
workers are needed for textile mills, cloth- 
ing factories, hosiery mills, food processing 
plants and rubber factories, as well as for 
hospitals, sanatoria and other services. 

WHAT GOES ON IN THE DEPT. OF 
Veterans Affairs is indicated by a report of 
the rehabilitation officials of the Montreal 
division for the month of June. They 
received calls from 1,517 employers, in- 
volving 4,483 jobs; placed 1,657 veterans; 
counselled 2,177 regarding their occupa- 
tions, including 54 taking university 
courses and 93 in vocational training; 
interviewed 1,740 regarding re-establish- 
ment credits and approved 727 applications, 
involving over $115,000. 

Over the past three years, these rehabili- 
tation officials have dealt with 10,000 
people, from all services, and have found 
that failures are comparatively few. They 
are urging employers, who keep asking 
chiefly for men under thirty, to realize that 
a large proportion of veterans are older, 
and to change their employment policies 
accordingly. 

ALEX WALKER, DOMINION PRES- 
ident of the Canadian Legion, on his 
return from an overseas tour, urged the 
government to ensure that no permanent 
appointments to Civil Service positions 
shall be made until members of the forces 
have an equal opportunity with others to 
compete for them. The Prime Minister 



replied that permanent appointments are 
being made only in the cases of veterans, 
civilians who qualified prior to the war 
and have been continuously employed since, 
and a very limited number of persons with 
special technical qualifications not to be 
found in sufficient numbers in the Armed 
Forces. 

THAT PRE-ENLISTMENT JOB IS YOURS 
if you want it, but you have to go back 
within three months after discharge in 
order to claim it. Just to make sure the 
former employer can check with you on 
whether he should hold the position open, 
the Depot now informs him immediately 
upon your discharge, gi-^ing the date and 
your civilian address. 

A NEW INDUSTRY FOR THE NORTH- 
land is fishing on a commercial scale in 
Great Slave Lake, NWT. Forty or fifty 
gill-net fishermen are now at work catch- 
ing whitefish and trout, which will be 
quick-frozen and shipped in refrigerated 
barges to railhead at Waterways, Alta. 

COLLEGE PREPARATORY COURSES 
for veterans, beginning in September, are 
offered by Sir George Williams College, 
Montreal, in co-operation with McGill 
University. About a hundred ex-service 
men and women are now enrolled in such 



FOR AMBITIOUS NEWSWRITERS, A 
four-year B.A. course in journalism is 
being offered this fall by the University of 
Western Ontario, London, Ont. This 
course will be the first of its kind in Canada. 

TO HELP MEET THE INCREASED 
costs of dealing with student veterans, the 
Canadian government will pay a supple- 
mentary grant of $150 to any university in 
Canada for each person enrolled there 
whose tuition fees are paid by the Depart- 
ment of Veterans Affairs. 



i 



HOW MUCH FOR HOW LONG?... 



FIGURES 
FOR 1941 



HOURLY RATE 



EACH 



= 10* PER HR. 



HOURS PER WEEK 



1 



EACH 

JL =10 HOURS 




MEN 



66666< 



PRIMARY 



WOMEN 



ffi) 



6666 




MEN 



66661 



SECONDARY 



WOMEN 



6666 1 



INVESTED 



even encouraged it as a logical development. In the 
textile industry labour organizations have progressed 
very slowly. 

Labour in the secondary textile industry has always 
been better organized than it has been in the primary 
industry. 

Ownership 

Canada has had control of the capital invested in 
the textile industry. British and American interests 
have invested substantially in Canadian textiles but not CAPITAL 
nearly to the point of control. In 1933 the largest non- 
Canadian investment was a 23^2% share of the hosiery 
industry held by United States capital. 

Relations among the directors and managers in the 
primary industry have been very close. Woollen, cot- 
ton and silk manufacturers have each had separate 
trade associations and a common Primary Textile In- 
stitute. Most of these trade associations set themselves 
four main objectives: (a) to provide a single voice for 
the industry in the various legislative centres; (b) to 
promote the sale of Canadian textiles abroad; (c) to 
foster the goodwill of the general public; (d) to ex- 
change ideas among the member firms. The Royal Com- 



TRADE 
ASSOCIATIONS 



11 



CONTROL 



CONCENTRA- 
TION OF 
DIRECTORATES 



mission found that these associations devoted their 
main attention to two activities, described as "the pro- 
motion of tariff protection and the regulation of com- 
petition among their members". 

Apart from the manufacture of cellulose acetate 
yarns and viscose yarn in the artificial silk industry, 
there are no absolute monopolies (complete control of 
an industry by one company) in Canadian textiles. But 
there have been close working relations, among the 
primary textile companies in particular. 

Organization of the Textile Industry 

A Royal Commission study of industry reported in 
1937 that the characteristic form of organization in the 
textile industry is the incorporated company operating 
under federal or provincial government charters. Con- 
centration of control hadn't developed nearly as much 
as in other industries. However, different groups of 
companies in the industry represented different phases 
of competitive business. Competition was sharpest in 
the woollen group where the largest single company 
had only 12.5% of the total sales of the group. 

In the biggest group in all textiles, cotton manufac- 
turers, the largest company, together with a controlled 
subsidiary, had 48% of the total sales. Two other com- 
panies together had 31% of the sales, which left 21% 
for the remaining companies. 

The Commission noted an increasing degree of con- 
centration in the whole primary textile industry through 
interlocking directorates, at least. So that, while no two 
or three very large corporations dominated the field, 
nevertheless the presence of the same management in- 
terests in important units in different fields (such as 
cotton, woollen, silk and knit goods) suggested the pos- 
sibility of such a development. 



12 



TEXTILES 
IN THE WAR 



3 



The pictographs tell part of the wartime story of 
Canadian textiles more completely and vividly than a 
few words can. But the whole story is bigger than charts 
and pictographs. 

Early in the war it became clear that individual 
members of the United Nations could not solve their 
production and manufacturing problems alone. The 
factors involved were too great. Resources and pro- 
cessing plants and labour were not easily to be found 
in the proper proportions in all places. 

Therefore, the Combined Production and Resources 
Board was set up to co-ordinate production and dis- 
tribution. Through it, Canada, the United States and 
the United Kingdom were able to make best use of 
their natural resources in meeting the demands of war. 
The Board had a very large influence on the textile 
business, among other industries. 

The Canadian industry, which had always drawn 
heavily on the United Kingdom and the United States 
for textile fibres with which to make its cloth, was at 
the outset of the war able to continue the practice; but 
it had to satisfy the Combined Board officials that it 
was making the maximum contribution with the 
materials. 

Production figures over the war years show what 
Canada was able to do with those resources. There 
were several major jobs. In the first place we had our 
own armed forces to clothe and equip. We had respon- 
sibility, too, for meeting some British and other Allied 
clothing needs. Finally, there were some civilian re- 
quirements which could not be neglected. 

Wartime Controls 

In order to maintain any kind of balance between 



STATISTICS 
HAVE A PLACE 



PROBLEMS OF 
PRODUCTION 



COMBINED 
PRODUCTION 
AND RESOURCES 
BOARD 



RAW MATERIAL 
SOURCES 



WARTIME 
OBJECTIVES 



13 



COMPLICATIONS 



PRODUCTION 
DIRECTIVES 



THEY STILL 
WORK 



MAKERS' 
NAMES 



PRICE TAGS 



INSPECTION 
STAFF 



textiles available and textiles required with competing 
demand and controlled supply, uncertain labour supply 
and urgent need, it was obviously necessary to have 
controls at work. The controls were operated through 
the Wartime Prices and Trade Board which was set up 
to handle just such problems. 

The Board emphasized maximum production of 
essentials rather than prohibition of non-essentials. 
When more greatcoats or parachutes or webbing were 
needed, it saw to it that the plants manufacturing these 
articles got the materials they needed. When civilian 
needs became urgent, whether for children's shoes or 
women's underwear, allocations of the quantities re- 
quired were made to manufacturers by the W.P.T.B. 
The allocations were known as "production directives." 
These "production directives" not only made available 
such things as woollen fabrics (in the case of a textiles 
directive) but also other materials essential to the 
product, such as elastic, zippers, leather and so on. The 
"directives" also helped the factories to secure neces- 
sary labour through National Selective Service. In 
every case that "directives" were issued, the companies 
concerned had to account for the use of the materials. 

This system of directives was begun in July 1943 
and is still being used (summer 1945). In every case 
directives raised production to higher levels. 

Price and Quality Controls 

Efforts were made by the Wartime Prices and Trade 
Board not only to control the prices of clothing but 
also to ensure that the quality was maintained. The 
standards were strengthened in 1944 and 1945 by a 
series of orders requiring manufacturers to identify 
themselves by labelling practically all garments and 
footwear sold in the retail market. In addition, re- 
tailers were required to attach a price tag to practically 
every item of men's, women's and children's clothing. 
The Board maintains an inspection staff to ensure the 
enforcement of these and other orders which control 
the prices and quality of textile products* 



14 



Wartime Production 

In general, textile production during the war 
reached proportions far beyond what was expected. 
Production of woollen fabrics has increased about 40% 
over pre-war days. Cotton fabrics rose between 18%- 
40%; the production of rayon fabrics practically 
doubled. 

The textile production job was accomplished in the 
face of a continuously inadequate labour supply. 
Labour priorities possessed by munitions manufacturers 
and other war industries, combined with the attractions 
of higher wage industries left textiles with problems of 
inexperience, inefficiency, absenteeism and rapid staff 
turnover — all of which impaired production. 

Labour and Management 

These conditions required the very closest of co- 
operation between labour and management. Part of 
this was achieved through the establishment of Labour- 
Management Production Committees. Alongside their 
importance in some other industries the Labour-Man- 
agement Production Committees appear to have played 
only a very minor role in this one. By March 1945, 
there were 23 such committees in the textile industry, 
representing a total of 6,550 workers. Labour-Manage- 
ment Production Committees provide ? 'a two-way 
channel of communication between management and 
labour". 

In general, as cabinet ministers pointed out, the 
committees served "to increase the output of war goods, 
to lower costs, and to improve efficiency". They "pro- 
moted industrial co-operation by creating a better 
understanding and mutual confidence between manage- 
ment and labour". 

Their benefits to production through the elimina- 
tion of bottlenecks and the improvement of production 
methods were important. The committees were also of 
value in improving the workers' lot. 

Labour Gains 

During the war years, labour has made many gains* 



PRODUCTION 



LABOUR 
SHORTAGE 



LABOUR- 
MANAGEMENT 
PRODUCTION 
COMMITTEES 



15 



BETTER 

WORKING 

CONDITIONS 



UNION 
RECOGNITION 



SOME 
ESTIMATES 



PLENTY TO DO 



Working conditions in primary textiles particularly 
have improved: improved by installation of cafeterias, 
and rest rooms; holidays with pay; by the establish- 
ment of up-to-date personnel departments; by afford- 
ing instruction to beginners and by the organization of 
social and welfare projects. 

The 1945 Manual of the Textile Industry of Canada 
claimed that "while employers in all sections of textiles 
have, in general, refused to accept the principle of the 
closed shop, they have, in many cases, welcomed efforts 
on the part of workers to extend unionization". The 
extent to which workers in textiles have actually ex- 
tended organization during the war years is indicated 
by the figures. Available figures show a wartime in- 
crease in primary textile union membership from over 
10,000 in 1939 to 17,000 in 1943; while in secondary 
textiles there was an increase from 20,000 to over 26,000 
members. 

Wage Increases 

Most important of the gains made by labour has 
been that of wages. Rough estimates of increases in 
individual weekly earnings in four main divisions of 
textiles between 1939 and 1944 follow: 



Cotton yarn 8C cloth 54% 

Woollen yarn 8C cloth 47% 



Silk & artificial silk 38% 

Garments 8C furnishings 51% 



Notwithstanding these improvements in wages, 
more continuous employment, union status, and gen- 
eral conditions, and in spite of urgent textile needs, 
far more workers were needed in textiles in the summer 
of 1945 than in any other manufacturing industry. 

Textile requirements following the defeat of Ger- 
many were no less urgent than before. Civilian needs 
at home increased with the repatriation of service per- 
sonnel. UNRRA, Red Cross and other relief require- 
ments had greatly increased. Military commitments 
both for Canadian forces and for the Allies had still 
to be met. 

At the same time, textile yarns and fibres previously 
available from Great Britain and the United States 
were more difficult to secure. 



16 



THE OUTLOOK 
AFTER THE WAR 



4 



The future of the industry in Canada cannot be 
separated from the future of the whole of Canada's 
economy — iron and steel industry, chemicals, pulp and 
paper, construction, and all the rest of our manufac- 1^^]™?!! 
turing industries. Textiles are essential commodities ECONOMY 
but the demand for textiles is more flexible than, say, 
the demand for foodstuffs, and that means it will be 
affected more seriously by employment fluctuations. 

The immediate post war objectives of the textile 
industry are perfectly clear cut. The transition period 
will be needed to replace obsolete and worn machinery 
with modernized and new equipment as soon as REBUILDING 
materials, machinery and labour become available. The 
industry plans some new buildings and renovated 
plants, but it does not expect a large expansion of 
productive facilities. 

If the increased wage rates which have been gained 
by workers during the war are to be maintained they 
must be protected by increased plant and manu- 
facturing efficiency. 

Increased efficiency in operation must also be con- 
tinuously sought to put the textile industry in a better 
position to compete if lower tariffs should result from 
post-war international trade agreements. The textile TARIFFS 
industry has been protected from American and British 
textile competition by means of tariffs imposed on tex- 
tile imports. The possibility of removing this tariff 
protection would mean an important readjustment in 
the industry. 

The industry does not have the problem of re-tool- 
ing which faces some other industries. Civilian textiles NO RETOOLING 
are made with the same type of machinery and labour 
force as are used for military textiles. As a result, it is 



PROTECTING 
WAGE GAINS 



REQUIRED 



17 



one of the few industries which can turn immediately 
from war to peace production. 

Jobs in the Industry 

The major problem facing the industry in the sum- 
mer of 1945 is a reduced skilled labour supply in all 
branches. Available statistics indicated that in May 
1945, there were about 150,000 full time employees in 
the Canadian textile industry. About the same time a 
survey conducted by the Financial Post indicated a 
shortage of about 10,000 workers, largely in primary 
textiles. 

That shortage plus the number of present employees 

who leave the industry after the war for reasons of 

HELP WANTED age, health, families and so on indicates the number 

of workers the industry will require for the conversion 

period. 

Beyond that period, the textile industry must con- 
tinue to operate with the same proportions of human 
and natural resources if it is to play its part in a Cana- 
dian economic effort aiming at full employment. 

In other words, there are employment opportunities 
in the textile industry at the present time. Further, 
there are satisfactory assurances that everything the 
industry can produce will be required for the full 
transition period between war and peace. 

It is an industry in which skilled labour is needed 
and in which the conversion from simplified wartime 
styles to the more attractive and varied peace-time 
designs will offer oppottunities for those equipped and 
interested. The industry itself is giving attention to 
instruction methods for both experienced and inex- 
perienced employees, as well as to the need for 
research. 

In general terms, the industry is looking for work- 
ers. The greater number of its recruits, to judge from 
what we have seen, will be in the younger age groups. 
And most of them will need only a moderate amount 
of training. There is a good chance that someone in 
your group will be among those workers. 



18 



QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION 



Here are two ways of getting at some of the central facts 
and problems mentioned in the article: 

1. The page references in the parentheses below refer to 
sources of material on a few of the issues involved. 

(a) On the proportion of women and young people in the 
industry. (9 & 10). 

(b) On the subjects of wages, hours, and union organi- 
zation. (9, 11 & 16). 

(c) On the industry's interest in research and training. 

(18). 

(</) On the question of public assistance for the industry 
(tariffs). (17). 

(e) On the increase in employment and production during 
the war. (4, 15 8C 16). 

2, For getting at specific factual information contained in 
the article direct questions may be useful. Here are some 
samples: 

(a) What processes are included in the primary textile 
industry? (7). 

(b) From what countries does Canada import most of the 
textile fibres she needs? (13). 

(c) What is a 'production directive'? (14). 

id) In what Canadian provinces are most textiles manu- 
factured? (8). 

(e) What are some objectives of Trade Associations? (12). 

(/) What does the average family spend on clothing? (4). 

(g) What does a jobber do? (8). 

(h) What is the difference between a salaried worker and 
a wage earner? (10). 



CANADIAN AFFAIRS Reconstruction Supplements are intended for those in 
the Services who want to discuss realistically the Canada in which they will 
work after the war. The Supplements are prepared by the Wartime Informa- 
tion Board and will appear fortnightly, alternating with the regular issue of 
CANADIAN AFFAIRS. 

19 



DESIGNED BY THE NATIONAL FILM BOARD 

* 

OTTAWA : KDMOND CLOUTIER, PRINTER TO THE KING'S MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY 
PRINTED IN CANADA, 1945.